Commercial Fishing Employment and Incomes in Mississippi, Gulf of Mexico, and United States


Most Valued Commercial Species

Commercial fishing comprises establishments primarily engaged in the commercial catching or taking of finfish, shellfish, or miscellaneous marine products from a natural habitat. (U.S. Bureau of Census, https://www.census.gov/eos/www/naics/index.html). The most valued species commercially landed in the Gulf of Mexico States are shrimp, menhaden, oyster, blue crabs, spiny lobster, red snapper, red grouper, and others listed in Figure 1.

Species-Million-Values-GOM
Figure 1. Most Valued Species Commercially Harvested in the Gulf of Mexico States Exceeding $1 Million in 2015. Source of raw data: NOAA Fisheries. http://www.st.nmfs.noaa.gov/commercial-fisheries/index.

 

Commercial Fishing Employment and Wages, Salaries, and Earnings

According to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Outlook Handbook (https://www.bls.gov/ooh/farming-fishing-and-forestry/fishers-and-related-fishing-workers.htm), fishers and related fishing workers typically do the following tasks:

  1. Locate fish with the use of fish-finding equipment
  2. Direct fishing operations and supervise the crew of fishing vessels
  3. Steer vessels and operate navigational instruments
  4. Maintain engines, fishing gear, and other onboard equipment by making minor repairs
  5. Sort, pack and store the catch in holds with ice and other freezing methods
  6. Measure fish to ensure that they are of legal size
  7. Return undesirable or illegal catches to the water
  8. Guide nets, traps, and lines onto vessels by hand or with hoisting equipment
  9. Signal other workers to move, hoist, and position loads of the catch

The commercial fishing industry directly provided more than 86,000 jobs per year in the United States all the way through the past 17 years (Figure 2).  The five Gulf of Mexico States (AL, FL, LA, MS, and TX) contributed about 27.4 percent of all the fishing jobs during the period. The fishing activities in Mississippi and Alabama added 1.4 and 1.6 percent of the total number of jobs, respectively.

The combined wages, salaries, and proprietor earnings (at constant 2016 prices) of all the QCEW employees, non-QCEW employees, self-employed, and extended proprietors averaged more than $33,000 per person during the past 16 years (Figure 2). The annual pay of fishers and owners of fishing businesses in the five Gulf of Mexico States averaged more than $23,000 per person or 78.9 percent of the national average. Mississippi and Alabama commercial fishers and boat owners received average annual pay amounting to 92.4 and 73.4 percent of the national average, respectively.

Fishermen-Wages-USA.jpg
Figure 2. Annual Employment and Wages, Salaries, and Earnings of Commercial Fishing QCEW Employees, Non-QCEW Employees, Self-Employed, and Extended Proprietors. QCEW U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages.  Source of raw data: EMSI. https://e.economicmodeling.com.

 

Distribution of Commercial Fishermen by Gender

The 2016 industrial overview released by EMSI (October 2017) showed that among fishers and owners, approximately 93.2 percent were males (Figure 3). About 6.8 percent of the fishing workers and boat owners were females. In the Gulf States, 92.4 percent are males while 7.6 percent are females.

Fishermen-Gender--USA-GOM
Figure 3. Distribution of Commercial Fishing QCEW Employees, Non-QCEW Employees, Self-Employed, and Extended Proprietors by Gender. QCEW – U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. Source of raw data: EMSI. https://e.economicmodeling.com.

 

Distribution of Commercial Fishermen by Race or Ethnicity

The 2016 industrial overview disseminated by EMSI (October 2017) also categorized the fishers and owners by race or ethnicity (Figure 4). Majority of the workers are Whites (81%), followed by Asians (7.5%), and Native Americans or Alaska Native (5.9%). The rest consist of Hispanic or Latino (2.4%), African Americans (1%), with two or more races (2%), and Native Hawaiians or Pacific Islander (0.2%). In the Gulf States, relatively more Asians are engaged in commercial fishing.

Fishermen-Race--USA-GOM
Figure 4. Distribution of Commercial Fishing QCEW Employees, Non-QCEW Employees, Self-Employed, and Extended Proprietors by Race or Ethnicity. QCEW – U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. Source of raw data: EMSI. https://e.economicmodeling.com.


Distribution of Commercial Fishermen by Age

The 2016 industrial overview published by EMSI (October 2017) also classified the fishers and owners by age (Figure 5).  Almost 3 out of 10 of the fishermen and owners are 55 years old and above. The 45-55 years old fishers and owners consisted of 29.9 percent of the total. The 35-44 years old group added 21.1 percent of the total. The younger fishermen and owners comprised the rest of the fishermen and owners. The commercial fishermen in the Gulf States are relatively older than the national average.

Fishermen-Age--USA-GOM
Figure 5. Distribution of Commercial Fishing QCEW Employees, Non-QCEW Employees, Self-Employed, and Extended Proprietors by Age. QCEW – U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages. Source of raw data: EMSI. https://e.economicmodeling.com.
Commercial Fishermen Registered in MarketMaker

To create an online database of local fishing (and fish farming) businesses, the following search was done in Mississippi MarketMaker (https://ms.foodmarketmaker.com/):

States: AL, AK, AZ, AR, CA, CO, CT, DC, DE, FL, GA, HI, ID, IL, IN, IA, KS, KY, LA, ME, MD, MA, MI, MN, MS, MO, MT, NE, NV, NH, NJ, NM, NY, NC, ND, OH, OK, OR, PA, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VT, VA, WA, WV, WI, or WY » Type: Fishery »

More than 500 local fishing businesses registered their business profiles in MarketMaker. Click this LINK to view the search results online. You can sort the results alphabetically, by relevance, or by the distance to your current location.

For more, go to  Mississippi MarketMaker Newsletter

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Direct Marketing Tools for Mississippi Vegetable Producers

According to the Agricultural Marketing Resource Center(http://www.agmrc.org/business-development/operating-a-business/direct-marketing/direct-marketing/), “marketing food products directly to consumers is a popular way of adding value to a farming operation. Direct marketing can be done by an individual producer or a group of producers working together.”

By using the Search function of the Mississippi MarketMaker and typing the keywords mentioned below, I was able to determine how Mississippi vegetable growers sell their products. Mississippi farmers employ the following direct marketing tools in the sale of their vegetable products in local markets:

Community Supported Agriculture

MarketMaker Search. Keywords: vegetables » State: MS » Type: Farmer/Rancher » Profile: Farmer/Rancher > Vegetables > Methods of Sale > Community Supported Agriculture (CSA).

MarketMaker Map. Click this Link to view the online database.

Community supported agriculture marketmaker map results.

Farm to School

MarketMaker Search. Keywords: vegetables » State: MS » Type: Farmer/Rancher » Profile: Farmer/Rancher > Vegetables > Methods of Sale > Farm to School.

MarketMaker Map. Click this Link to see the online database.

Farm to school MarketMaker map search results.

Farmers Market

MarketMaker Search. Keywords: vegetables » State: MS » Type: Farmer/Rancher » Profile: Farmer/Rancher > Vegetables > Methods of Sale > Farmers Market.

MarketMaker Map. Click this Link to view the online database.

Farmers market MarketMaker Search results map.

On-Farm Sales

MarketMaker Search. Keywords: vegetables » State: MS » Type: Farmer/Rancher » Profile: Farmer/Rancher > Vegetables > Methods of Sale > On Farm Sales.

MarketMaker Map. Click this Link to see the online database.

On-Farm Sales Mississippi MarketMaker search results map.

Pick-Your-Own

MarketMaker Search. Keywords: vegetables » State: MS » Type: Farmer/Rancher » Profile: Farmer/Rancher > Vegetables > Methods of Sale > Pick-Your-Own.

MarketMaker Map. Click this Link to view the online database.

Pick your own Mississippi MarketMaker Search results map.

 

For more, go to  Mississippi MarketMaker Newsletter

 

 

MARKETMAKER TRAINING PROGRAM OUTLINE

Topic 1

Title: The Four P’s of Marketing

Learner objective: Participants will learn knowledge and skills about the Four P’s of Marketing.

Resource(s):

Topic 2

Title: Creating and Updating Business Profiles in MarketMaker

Learner objective: Participants will gain knowledge and expertise on how to create and update business profiles in MarketMaker.

Resource(s):

Exercises:

  • Create or update the business profile of your food business in MarketMaker.
  • Search for business profiles of food businesses selling similar products.

Topic 3

Title: Use of Online Tools and Social Media Networks in Business Promotion

Learner objective: Participants will gain knowledge and expertise about how to integrate social media networks in promoting their businesses.

Resources:

Exercises:

  • Create and update social media networks for your food business and integrate with your business profile.

MARKETMAKER TRAINING PROGRAM SUMMARY

Program Area(s): Enterprise Economics

Summary: This program will teach owners/operators of food businesses to register and update their business profiles in Mississippi MarketMaker.

Target Audience(s): The intended audience includes owners/operators of food businesses operating in Mississippi and other member states.

Objectives: Participants will:

  • Learn knowledge and skills about the components of a business proposition and the importance of the Four P’s of Marketing.
  • Gain knowledge and expertise on how to create and update business profiles in MarketMaker.
  • Gain knowledge and expertise about how to integrate social media networks in promoting their businesses.

Total Number of Modules or Sessions: One session consisting of a 30-minute presentation and 30-minute exercises.

Total Number of Hours for Program Delivery: At least one hour for a successful completion of the program.

Program Delivery:

  • Group discussion
  • Newsletter
  • Numbered Extension publication
  • One-on-one intervention
  • Social Media
  • Workshop

Primary Contact: Dr. Benedict Posadas, ben.posadas@msstate.edu

DEVELOPING MARKETING PLANS FOR DIRECT-TO-CUSTOMER ENTERPRISES: TOPICS TO BE COVERED

TOPIC 1

Title: Marketing Mix – Dr. Elizabeth Canales, elizabeth.canales@msstate.edu

Description: This one-hour session consists of a lecture and an activity that allows agents to analyze the Four P’s of the marketing mix (Product, Place, Price, and Promotion), understand the importance of the marketing mix for a successful marketing plan, and evaluate the marketing mix for a small business.

Learner Objective: Agents will learn about the 4P’s of a marketing mix strategy, and how to apply it to small businesses

Exercises:

  • A 15-minutes lecture to introduce concepts of target market and the elements of the marketing mix
  • A 15-minutes exercise led by the instructor analyzing the 4P’s of products with different characteristics (one known product like Coca-Cola and a cottage food product)
  • A 20-minute discussion activity where agents will be able to analyze a cottage food product and recommend a product mix strategy
  • A 10-minute interactive quiz

TOPIC 2

Title: Marketing Plans 101- Dr. Alba Collart, alba.collart@msstate.edu

Description: In this 1-hour presentation, agents will learn the basics of a marketing plan outline. The first 30-minutes will be allocated to a video conference or video-on-demand, and the last 30-minutes to exercises and a quiz. Once the session has been completed, they will be able to answer the following questions:

  • What is a marketing plan and why is it needed?
  • What are the key parts of a marketing plan?
  • What are the steps to build a marketing plan?
  • How to judge the quality of a marketing plan?

Learner objective: Participants will have more knowledge and skills related to the development of marketing plans for business use.

Exercises:

  • Case study reading and discussion (15 min). Example: “Cheese.io” by Pedro M. Gardete (2017). The goal of this case is to encourage learners to assess the risks and opportunities of launching a new product.
  • Interactive quiz (15 min). An interactive quiz that learners take at the end of the session. Participants can take the quiz repeatedly, and instant feedback is provided on right/wrong questions.

TOPIC 3

Title: Using MarketMaker for Market Research – Dr. Benedict Posadas, ben.posadas@msstate.edu

Description: In this 1-hour presentation, agents will learn how to conduct market research and analysis of local, regional and national markets for specific products and services. The first 30-minutes will be devoted to a video conference or video-on-demand, and the last 30-minutes to exercises and a quiz.

Learner objective: Participants will have more knowledge and skills in using MarketMaker as a tool for conducting market research.

Exercises:

  • Conduct searches of local growers of specific food products.
  • Create online databases of local producers of specific food products.

Developing Marketing Plans for Direct-to-Customer Enterprises: Program Summary

Program Area(s): Enterprise Economics

Summary: This program will teach county agents how to draw up a marketing plan successfully, with an emphasis on the needs of direct-to-costumer enterprises operated by Extension clientele.

Target Audience(s): The target audience includes owners/operators of direct-to-customer businesses, such as roadside/farm stands, agritourism businesses, community supported agriculture enterprises, restaurants and schools within the Farm-to-School network, farmers’ market vendors and managers, among others.

Objectives: Participants will:

  • Learn about the 4P’s of a marketing mix strategy, and how to apply it to small businesses.
  • Have more knowledge and skills related to the development of marketing plans for business use.
  • Learn how to conduct market research and analysis of local, regional and national markets for their products and services.

Total Number of Modules or Sessions: Three one-hour sessions consisting of 30-minute video conference or video-on-demand and 30-minute exercises and quiz.

Total Number of Hours for Program Delivery: A total number of 3 sessions, covering three hours and equivalent to 3 credit hours upon successful completion of the program.

Program Delivery:

  • Educational video (online or DVD)
  • Group discussion
  • Numbered Extension publication
  • Print or popular articles
  • Social Media
  • Webinar
  • Workshop

Primary Contact: Dr. Benedict Posadas, ben.posadas@msstate.edu

 

Commercial Eastern Oyster Fishing in the Gulf of Mexico States

Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) are found along the East Coast from the Gulf of St. Lawrence in Canada to the northern Yucatan Peninsula in the Gulf. They’ve also been transplanted to be cultured along the West Coast and abroad. Oyster larvae are found in the water column. As they grow, they settle to the bottom and attach to hard surfaces, primarily in areas of the open bottom but also in areas with submerged vegetation.

DSC09324
Figure 1. Eastern oysters.

Oysters can grow in a variety of environments but prefer brackish water where salt and fresh water mix. Oysters are mostly sessile—they stay in one place and grow together in reefs (natural accumulations of oyster shell and living oysters). Oyster reefs are found in intertidal environments (between the high and low tide) and shallow sub-tidal areas (always below the water surface). (Gulf FINFO, http://gulffishinfo.org/).

Eastern Oysters Commercial Landings

Figure 2 shows the commercial landings of Eastern oysters from the Gulf of Mexico Region. During the last five years, the Gulf States supplied 66.4 % of the entire Eastern oyster domestic landings averaging 18.9 million pounds and valued at $82.0 million annually.

Louisiana is the largest producing state in the Gulf of Mexico, supplying 42.8% of all domestically-caught Eastern oysters, and 65.5% of all the Eastern oysters harvested in the Gulf of Mexico region.  Texas is the second largest producing state, collecting 15.1% of the entire domestically-caught Eastern oysters, and 22.5% of all the Eastern oysters gathered from the Gulf.

The oyster species harvested in the United States include Eastern oyster, European flat oyster, Pacific oyster, and Kumamoto oyster. Eastern oyster consisted 74.9% of all oysters harvested from the wild in the United States during the last five years. The rest of domestic landings were mostly Pacific oysters which were harvested from the Western States.

commercial landings of Eastern oysters from the Gulf of Mexico Region
Figure 2. Annual Eastern oyster commercial landings in the Gulf of Mexico Region. Source of raw data: NOAA Fisheries (http://www.st.nmfs.noaa.gov/). 
chart of percent distribution of Easter oyster monthly commercial landings
Figure 3. Percent distribution of Eastern oyster monthly commercial landings in the Gulf of Mexico Region in 2015. Source of raw data: NOAA Fisheries (http://www.st.nmfs.noaa.gov/).

Oyster Businesses Registered in MarketMaker

In 2015, the Gulf-wide commercial landings of Eastern oysters reached 17.1 million pounds. This shellfish species was caught year-round with most of the landings occurring during the winter-spring months (Figure 3).

There are more than 800 fishing businesses, seafood processing plants, seafood and fish markets, and seafood restaurants registered in MarketMaker nationwide which harvest, process, sell, and serve oysters in the United States. Click this LINK to view the search results online. The online database of oyster businesses can be sorted by relevance, distance and alphabetically. You can also limit online searches by state, county, city or number of miles from a specified location, and type of business.